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singularity

“Naked Singularity” by new 1lluminati

I got to thinking again about “The Singularity” when I read this week about robots teaching other robots as part of some research at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

The technological singularity, often just simply called the singularity, is the idea that the invention of artificial superintelligence (ASI, a step beyond AI) will result in very rapid technological growth and then dramatic changes to human civilization.

The term was popularized by sci-fi writer Vernor Vinge in his 1993 essay “The Coming Technological Singularity” but goes back earlier to the mathematician John von Neumann, who spoke of “ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.”

Futurist Ray Kurzweil wrote The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology in 2005 as a sequel and extension to his previous books, The Age of Intelligent Machines (1990) and The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999). Kurzweil predicts an exponential increase in technologies like computers, genetics, nanotechnology, robotics and artificial intelligence, and then once the Singularity has been reached, machine intelligence will be infinitely more powerful than all human intelligence combined.

Kurzweil and others see the next phase to be when intelligence moves beyond Earth until it saturates the universe. Some people say that the true Singularity is the point at which machines intelligence and humans merge.

In the past decade, some famous folks like Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk expressed concern that full artificial intelligence could result in human extinction.

The Singularity’s potential benefit or harm to the human race is being debated.

But my current interest is this idea of the machines using “social learning.” In your lifetime, you have probably learned more by observing or interacting with others than you learned in any formal “school” setting. This kind of socially acquired knowledge is different from what we learn on our own, or in a classroom.

I guess I shouldn’t be surprised that robots would some day also learn this way. The robots at MIT are learning from one another. A robot is programmed with a knowledge base so it has information about how to interact with objects such as door handles. This knowledge base helps the robot navigate the constraints of the world, such as the physical necessity of having to turn a handle before pulling a door open. A human “teacher” only needs to demonstrate the action once. Then, the robot can pass its knowledge on to other robots.

Maybe that doesn’t fit you definition of teaching. True. This transfer of skills between robots still needs  intervention from a human. For now…

What they are working on at MIT is demonstrating tasks to one robot that can then transfer its skills to other robots that are different. Others with different body shapes and strengths can use the skills in other ways. Their goal is independent social learning in robots – cultured robots.

If we reach the singularity – or is it that the machines reach it? – they will no longer need us. Does that make you feel hopeful or hopeless about the future?

I was once criticized when I was much younger for being “too sensitive.”  The criticism made me wonder: Can you be too sensitive? I decided that you can be too sensitive about certain topics. I know people who seem to me to be too sensitive about politics, for example. But can you be too sensitive about the abuse of children, women or people in general?

What is the difference between highly sensitive people and people known as empaths? An article that popped up in my reading feed was by  Judith Orloff who has also written The Empath’s Survival Guide: Life Strategies for Sensitive People.

“Empath” comes from empathy which is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another. I don’t think anyone considers empathy to be a bad thing. But some people say that highly sensitive people can cause problems for themselves and others.

These people have a lower threshold for stimulation than most people. They have a need for alone time and an aversion to large groups. They can be physically more sensitivity to light, sound, and smell. Their ability to quickly make a transition from high stimulation to being quiet is slower. It will take them longer to unwind from work or stressful situations.

“Empath”is a term I actually associate more with science-fiction as a person with the paranormal ability to apprehend the mental or emotional state of another individual. You’ll find them in some of the writing and film versions of Philip K. Dick’s future worlds, such as Minority Report (with its “precogs”) and Blade Runner.

The two Blade Runner films ask us to empathize with artificial intelligence. That is a strange thing to ask in a time when we might question the lack of empathy many people seem to have for other people.

In HBO’s series Westworld, the ask is something very different. Set in an AI  amusement park for adults, the new series is quite different from the Michael Crichton original novel. In that book and film, the robots are clearly the bad guys and they take control of their intelligence and begin killing guests. The new version focuses much more on the growing sentience of the androids. The humans are the bad guys who wildly and gleefully mistreat the robots sexually and in the many violent scenarios.

The newest Blade Runner 2049 also brings the story into our time by making the protagonist, K (Ryan Gosling), be a replicant himself, but one charged with hunting down his own kind who break the laws that control them.

Steven Spielberg took on some of these issues in his film AI Artificial Intelligence. In this future, there are already robots called Mecha that are very advanced humanoids that are capable of thoughts and emotions. One Mecha, David, is like a human child and is programmed to love his owners, a couple who want a replacement for their real son who is in suspended animation waiting for a cure for his rare disease. What happens when human treat a robot as if it is real?

The TV series HUM∀NS also explores the psychological impact of  anthropomorphic robots (called “synths”) on their human owners, and the growing sentience of the robots.

This is not to say that we should connect sensitive people to AI robots. These questions go back to Enlightenment philosophers. The point is to examine how empathy may have changed in society.

Highly sensitive people and empaths are not mutually exclusive; you can be both. There is a kind of spectrum with empaths on the far end and highly sensitive people further down, and at the other end of the spectrum are narcissists, sociopaths, and psychopaths who have “empath-deficient disorders.”

In researching this area, I found books on a range of related topics, including dealing with being highly sensitive, as well as enhancing these qualities and making it part of your life’s work (counseling, teaching, mental health and healing).

I would never have guessed that a query on YouTube for “empaths” would turn up 179,000 results.

Take all this another step into New Age territory and you’ll find a kind of energy (called shakti or prana in Eastern healing traditions) that empaths can actually absorb from other people and from environments. This is far from just being highly sensitive and enters into spiritual and intuitive experiences .

Sensitivity and empathy are qualities we should respect and encourage, but we should be aware of what areas of relationships and society can be embraced and which ones can harm us.

dark knowledge

Reading about Geoffrey Hinton, an academic computer scientist who has focused on artificial intelligence (AI), I came across several terms I had never heard.

I’m no scientist but I am aligned with him in believing that we understand little about the brain. We understand so little that the idea of being able to create AI seems rather foolish.

But Hinton’s algorithms might already be behind some aspects of our lives.

I had heard of neural networks (the artificial and biological types) and now I find out that they have been rebranded as “deep learning.” These artificial neural networks sound like sci-fi but if you use mobile devices then you have especially embraced them via Google, Facebook, Microsoft etc.  Their neural nets take all the data we throw at them and make predictions from it. It is big business. (The article points to a company called DeepMind that Google spent $400 million on just to get their memory integration method.  They bought some of Hinton’s time too.)

Does it sound more like The Matrix films or when the Terminator said “My CPU is a neural net processor” than real life? Wait – are you carrying a little “learning computer” in your pocket these days?

Deep learning goes back a ways. Hinton was writing ten years ago about “deep belief networks” which improved themselves as they ran, and that became artificial neural networks, which became deep learning.

I can’t quite imagine life on Google’s campus, and it’s even harder for me to imagine Hinton (who works there half the year) playing with neural nets there and going after what he calls “dark knowledge,” which sounds a bit creepy. It reminds me of some occult studies.

If I watch/listen to him lecture about it, I don’t get frightened, just confused. Machines learning has been a staple of sci-fi for a long time and it still scares most of us.

I’d try reading a Wikipedia entry on dark knowledge, but there isn’t one yet. That’s a bit scary too.

The Turing test is a test of a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behavior. The test was introduced by Alan Turing in his 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence,” which tried to deal with the question, “Can machines think?

In Turing’s test, a human judge engages in a natural language conversation with a human and a machine designed to generate performance indistinguishable from that of a human being. All participants are separated from one another. If the judge cannot reliably tell the machine from the human, the machine is said to have passed the test.

The test does not concern itself with whether answers are “correct” since humans are not always correct but do sound human,

Alan Turing is often called the father of computer science. He became famous for cracking the Nazi’s Enigma machine.

The Turing Test continues to be used to determine a machine’s artificial intelligence. Recently, I read about what was described as “the largest Turing test in history” where the test was almost beaten by a “normal teenager.”

Eugene Goostman is a typical seventh-grader from a middle-class family, a bit awkward and with an odd sense of humor. And that peculiar middle-schooler personality is probably what led to Eugene winning the top prize at the Turing 100 event.

At the event, 29% of respondents thought that the Eugene artificial chat was a real person.  You need to fool 30% of the humans to actually pass the test, but 29% is an impressive score.  Eugene is the creation of  Vladimir Veselov who has entered Eugene in other competitions but this was his first Turing test win.

Then again, would you want your robot to have the personality of a 7th grader?  Is one AI problem that we have been expecting our artificially intelligent machines to be grownups?

Final Note: Alan Turing

Turing’s life story has a lousy ending. His homosexuality resulted in a criminal prosecution in 1952, when homosexual acts were still illegal in the United Kingdom. He accepted treatment with female hormones (chemical castration) as an alternative to prison. Turing worked from 1952 until 1954 on mathematical biology, specifically morphogenesis. But he died in 1954, just after his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning which was judged a suicide.

In 2009, following an Internet campaign, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for “the appalling way he was treated”.

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