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lammas loaves

Lughnasadh (pronounced LOO-nə-sə) is a Gaelic festival marking the beginning of the harvest season. It was once observed throughout Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man on the first day of August. That was about halfway between the summer solstice and autumn equinox, and is one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals, along with Samhain, Imbolc and Beltane, that are also referred to as cross-quarter days.

Lughnasadh was the wedding of the Sun god Lugh to the Earth goddess, causing the ripening of crops.

Over time the celebrations have shifted to the Sunday nearest this date, so today might be the time to bring a new wheat loaf of bread to church.

It corresponds to other European harvest festivals such as the Welsh Gŵyl Awst and the English Lammas.

Lugh

The three-faced god identified as Lugh/Lugus

The church transformed Lughnasadh into an offering from the first fruits of the land. The first loaves baked from the new wheat were offered at the Loaf Mass, which became corrupted in pronunciation to Lammas.

Lammas Day (Anglo-Saxon hlaf-mas, “loaf-mass”) is celebrated in some English-speaking countries in the Northern Hemisphere, but may occur between August 1 and September 1. It is a festival to mark the annual wheat harvest which began at Lammastide. The loaf was blessed, and in Anglo-Saxon England it might even be used to work some magic. In the book of Anglo-Saxon charms, you are directed to break the lammas bread into four and place them at the four corners of the barn, to protect the harvested grain.

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wheel

The recent summer solstice reminds me that many of our current rituals and holidays have some basis in the calendars of the ancient Celts and other cultures. The turning of the “Wheel of the Year” was a concept used in varying ways by several cultures.

Historians don’t all agree about whether the ancient Celts observed the solstices and equinoxes. They may have divided the year into four major sections: Samhain, Imbolc, Beltane, and Lughnasadh. Today those days are referred to as Quarter Days.

Some historians believe the ancient Celts observed eight divisions of the year – the four major sections, which are the equinoxes and solstices each beginning with a quarter day, and then a further halving into four cross-quarter days.

It is important to remember that the seasons as we know them today are not ancient division, though they are certainly based on some of the same celestial observations. The solstices and equinoxes nicely divided an agrarian lifestyle year.

The adoption of the 12-month Roman calendar for civil and then religious purposes began to align closely with the liturgical year of the Christian church.

The eight divisions are: Midwinter (Yule), Imbolc, Vernal Equinox (Ostara), Beltane, Midsummer (Litha), Lammas/Lughnasadh, Autumnal equinox (Mabon) and Samhain.

The Cross-Quarter Days marked the midpoint between a solstice and equinox, and for the ancient Celts, these marked the beginning of each season. As far as “seasons,” there were only two divisions: winter marked with Samhain which was the start of the dark half of the year, and summer/Beltane to begin the light half of the year.

The Wheel of the Year is the annual cycle of seasonal festivals, still observed by many modern Pagans. It consists of either four or eight festivals depending on whether they observe the solstices and equinoxes, or include the four midpoint cross quarter days.

A sun cross is a design found in the symbolism of prehistoric cultures, particularly during the Neolithic to Bronze Age periods of European prehistory. Its importance in prehistoric religion has made its interpretation as a solar symbol.

Popular legend in Ireland says that the Celtic Christian cross was introduced by Saint Patrick or possibly Saint Declan, though there are no examples from this early period. The legend is that St. Patrick combined the symbol of Christianity with the sun cross to bring the pagan followers a connection to the Christian cross. The cross also divided the solar year into quarters.

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Every end is also a beginning. First snow of the season.  Not enough to start the snowblower, but enough to start a fire. If you have to make shavings to start the fire, you may as well whittle something useful, then have a sip and do some #readingbravely in the snow. I’m the first human here.  Today. Sunset before a snowstorm.

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