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Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet.

Or maybe the runes (Proto-Norse: ᚱᚢᚾᛟ (runo), Old Norse: rún)  were not used as just a simple writing system, but as magical signs, charms and for divination. Their history is not entirely clear.

The word “rune” is taken to mean something secret, hidden or whispered and suggests that the runes may have originally been considered esoteric, or restricted to an elite group.

When rune stones are used for divination – a way to predict one’s future – it is often in a set of 24 stones with the ancient alphabetic symbols.

Runes may be one of the oldest pagan methods used for divination.They were used across northern Europe, the British Isles, Scandinavia, and Iceland from about 100 B.C.E. There are some Some runic inscriptions that have been also found in America which some people say supports the theory that Vikings were the first Europeans to discover America.

For me, runes, like tarot cards and other divination methods, rely on the reader’s intuition and self-knowledge or knowledge of the subject.

Guidebooks to using the runes give simple meanings for each symbol and alphabetic/phonetic values. Each symbol is also supposed to have spiritual or divine properties. Most have connections to nature forces and each rune has a story related to a Norse God.

When people use the runes, they seek advice. You state your current condition and then ask your specific question. Like almost every other divination tools, the reading can sometimes be obscure. There are answers, but the details rely on further intuition for interpreting the runes.

I was taught to draw three runes from the pouch while thinking of or saying aloud your question or in what area you seek advice.  Your hand should sense which stones to draw from the pouch, one by one.  Similar to a three-card tarot spread, the first rune addresses a past situation that influences your question. The second rune is an answer to a present situation, and the last one will answer to a future situation.

I don’t think this is “fortunetelling” or seeing into the future. A reading is the time to analyze your present, your path and likely outcomes. To believe you can see the future means you believe the future is a fixed phenomenon. I don’t believe that. I believe it changes with all of our actions. No matter what the runes say, the path can be changed.

As an example, the Rune of Fertility and Growth is named Berkanan and it looks like the letter B. It is associated with the birch tree, which is a tree that grows rapidly. The color for this rune is dark green. Its element is Earth from which the tree grows.

Berkanan refers to many things depending on the context of the question:  renewal, regeneration, purification, healing, recovery, the family and the home, the enjoyment of sexual relations, fertility, and birth.

If you were asking advice about pursuing a new job path, Berkanan can mean “birth” in a literal or symbolic way, such as the successful start of any new idea or enterprise. If it was the first rune, it would mean one that occurred in the past that impacts the current situation. It would make sense as the second stone, since it is your current situation, but then it would not really bring any insight to the current situation.

The rune can be revealed in reverse and then it would be interpreted as a lack of growth, a reduction in stature, a decline, perhaps a loss in business and not a good time for new ventures.

On those occasions when I have consulted the runes, I have never thought I was communicating with a spirit, a god or God.  I think I was given some suggestions about ways to view some situation that was unclear to me through the lenses of my past, present and possible future.

I know that some religious people are opposed to forms of divination. I understand that. But the runes are to me closer to a session with a therapist than a religious experience.

 

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A self-help book is one that is written with the intention to instruct its readers on solving personal problems. If you can still find a local bookstore, there is a good chance that a shelf or wall is devoted to books of this genre.

These books take their name from a book actually titled Self-Help. It was a 1859 best-seller by Samuel Smiles. That name and author is for real. Samuel Smiles (1812 – 1904), was a Scottish author and government reformer, and his book promoted thrift and claimed that poverty was caused largely by irresponsible habits. The book has been called “the bible of mid-Victorian liberalism” and made him quite a celebrity.

Well before that, a book of manners published in 1558 suggests: ‘It is also an unpleasant habit to lift another person’s wine or his food to your nose and smell it’.”  I agree.

But guides to how to live your life are even older. It could be argued that the ancient Egyptian “Codes” of conduct and the Bible were self-help or at least partially intended for self-improvement.

I have very strong memories of Charles Atlas who ran ads in almost every comic book I read as a kid. As a weakling 12-year-old reading a Superman comic, the idea of using  “dynamic tension”  to become really strong and avoid bullies “kicking sand in your face” was very appealing. Charles Atlas was a bodybuilder who came up with a system of physical exercise back in the 1920s, but the ads were running strong in the 1960s. (“Dynamic Tension” is a registered trademark of Charles Atlas, Ltd and their website still looks a lot like those ads from almost a 100 years ago.)

The Charles Atlas method was all about putting muscle against muscle. No weights or equipment needed. That was very appealing to a kid with only a weekly allowance. We even did a variation of this in our school gym classes that the teachers called “isometrics.” I recall a gym teacher telling us, “Look at lions and tigers. They don’t use any equipment. they stretch and push muscle against muscle.” it made sense to me.

Dale Carnegie’s How to Win Friends & Influence People was probably the first book I ever encountered on a bookshelf that was clearly “self-help.” It is one of the first best-selling self-help books and was first published in 1936. It is also still around. (Self-help books have legs!) It has sold over 30 million copies worldwide. It even made Time Magazine’s list of the 100 most influential books.

Like Charles Atlas, Carnegie’s self-help promises sound really tempting: make people like you; win people to your way of thinking; change people without arousing resentment.

One topic that has perennial appeal is love. In the Middle Ages, there were “Conduir-amour” – guides in love matters – published.  In classical Rome, Cicero’s On Friendship and On Duties and Ovid’s Art of Love even produced a sequel – Remedy of Love. They are the forerunners of the many volumes published about where to go to meet mates (most of them are intended for male readers), how to start a conversation, keep them interested, and ultimately how to have the best sex.

I think there is probably some good advice in all these self-help books. But I, like most of you, am lazy. We want really fast and easy ways to solve our problems.  10-Minute Mindfulness: 71 Habits for Living in the Present Moment sure sounds easier than easier than going away for a Zen retreat weekend and sitting uncomfortably for hours. Remember those 1-minute manager books? Yeah, I’ve got a minute. Change my life.

Sometimes we need help but part of the help we need is to be motivated to read a book that will help us.

By the BookAnd so, as I have posted a few times about podcasts I currently enjoy, I must recommend one for all of us lazy types that need help. It is By the Book, a self-help book podcast in which the hosts – comedian Jolenta Greenberg and serious skeptic Kristen Meinzer – test out self-help books for us.

In each episode, they live by the rules of a different self-help book for two weeks and report back on what worked and what didn’t. You can grab the nuggets of wisdom from each book without having to buy it or read it.

Of course, there is the possibility that a book might actually be life-changing.

I first knew of Kristen by going on many Movie Date[s] with her. She was the co-host of the much-missed Movie Date podcast where Rafer Guzman weekly pretended that he was on the date with Kristen. (She has since married and so our movie dates ended.) But now I have By the Book, which just finished its first season, and it is funny, irreverent, thoughtful, highly personal and a great listen. And it is free. You can’t lose. Money-back guarantee.

The show also has a nice community on Facebook where I seem to be one of the few (perhaps the only) male participant. What’s up with that? Are guys not even able to admit to needing help?

I got to thinking that maybe the ladies should test out a self-help book for guys (their husbands show up in the podcasts, so they might help). I did a search on self-help books for men about love and the  search results were frightening – almost all books for women about men. They ranged from how to get a guy – The Power of the Pussy: Get What You Want From Men: Love, Respect, Commitment and More! through How to Get & Keep The Man of Your Dreams: by Staying True to Your Core Self  – all the way to the land of F*CK Him! – Nice Girls Always Finish Single – “A guide for sassy women who want to get back in control of their love life” (The Truth about his weird behavior, … of commitment and sudden loss of interest). Long titles are clearly key to self-help success.

I did not buy any of those titles for my wife.  Instead, maybe I will read 100 Ways to Love Your Wife: A Life-long Journey of Learning to Love Each Other. It was written by a guy, but it probably would have been better if it was written by a woman. As a pre-teen, I used to read my sister’s copies of Seventeen, Teen, Cosmopolitan et al because I figured those articles on “5 Ways to Get That Guy” would give me tips on how to get a girl or at least warn me about what they were plotting.

I didn’t buy the 100 Ways book. Maybe Kristen and Jolenta will read it and pick out 7 ways that are really good and I can use them for the week before our anniversary.


Want to browse the many opportunities you have for helping improve yourself?  Try this link.

 

 

 

I’m not a Buddhist. At least, I don’t think I follow Buddhism closely enough these days to qualify for the title. I have studied the religion which is now represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha  as a religion and also use it as a philosophy.

A very simplified description of the teaching of Buddha is that life is permeated with suffering which is caused by desire. Suffering ceases when desire ceases. Enlightenment is obtained through right conduct. Wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and therefore, suffering.

I would contend that the path I followed through reading, meditation and even formal study at a Zen monastery was a path of philosophy rather than religion. I never accepted things like reincarnation. I like desire too much.  I consider my path to be a kind of American Buddhism. Some might say it is Western Buddhism.

I don’t use American Buddhism as a negative term, though some genuine Buddhists might see it as such. There are many uses of the word “Zen” attached to everything from playing tennis to the “Zen” of dogs and cats – that seem very wrong applications of Buddhism.  If you were really critical of American Buddhism, it would probably be because you consider it just a kind of self-help program to reduce stress.

It is difficult to define these things. What is Zen Buddhism? On zen-buddhism.net they say that “Trying to explain or define Zen Buddhism, by reducing it to a book, to a few definitions, or to a website is impossible. Instead, it freezes Zen in time and space, thereby weakening its meaning.”

Nevertheless, I will say that Zen Buddhism was an outgrowth of Mahayana, the “meditation” sect of Buddhism. It developed in Japan from its earlier Chinese counterpart. It also divided into two branches.

Binzai is the more austere and aristocratie monasticism that emphasizes meditation on the paradoxes that people may know as koans. (“What is the sound of one hand clapping?)

The other branch is Sōtō which is probably the more popular following. It emphasizes ethical actions and charity, tenderness, benevolence and sympathy, as well as meditation on whatever occurs as illumination.

The Buddhism that seemed to appeal to the American mind offered escape and engagement – two things that may seem to be in opposition. The idea of “10 minute mindfulness” should seem impossibly simplistic and unrealistic to anyone, but the concept sells books and fills workshops.

The latest book I have read related to Buddhism is by Robert Wright. In Why Buddhism is True, Wright uses biology, psychology and philosophy to show how meditation can lead to a spiritual life in a secular age.

You might not know that evolutionary psychology is a field of study. Wright combines it with neuroscience to show why he believes Buddhism is true, and how it can free us of delusions and save us from ourselves, as individuals and as a species.

In a earlier book, The Moral Animal, he wrote about how evolution shaped the human brain. Our mind is designed to sometimes delude us about ourselves and about the world in order to survive. Unfortunately, this leads to much unhappiness.

Some of this comes from natural selection which he says makes animals in general “recurrently dissatisfied.” It leads us to anxiety, depression, anger, and greed. Wright believes Buddhism was a kind of answer to natural selection.

If human suffering is a result of not seeing the world clearly, meditation can clarify that seeing and so will make us better, happier people.

I was first introduced to his new book through an interview with him on Fresh Air. Host Terry Gross asked Wright about how natural selection is at odds with the Buddhist notion that pleasure is fleeting:

“This was in the Buddha’s first sermon after his enlightenment is that a big source of our suffering is that we crave things, we want things, but then the gratification tends not to last. So we find ourselves in a state of almost perennial dissatisfaction. And, in fact, people may have heard that Buddhism says that life is full of suffering, and it’s true that suffering is the translation of the word dukkha. It’s a respectable translation, but a lot of people think that that word would be just as well translated as “unsatisfactoryness.”

Certainly when you think about the logic of natural selection, it makes sense that we would be like this. Natural selection built us to do some things, a series of things that help us get genes into the next generation. Those include eating food so we stay alive, having sex — things like that.

If it were the case that any of these things brought permanent gratification, then we would quit doing them, right? I mean, you would eat, you’d feel blissed out, you’d never eat again. You’d have sex, you’d, like, lie there basking in the afterglow, never have sex again. Well, obviously that’s not a prescription for getting genes into the next generation. So natural selection seems to have built animals in general to be recurrently dissatisfied. And this seems to be a central feature of life — and it’s central to the Buddhist diagnosis of what the problem is.”

An earlier book by Jon Kabat-Zinn, a scientist, writer, and meditation teacher, was what get me thinking a lot more about mindfulness.  He worked to bring mindfulness into the mainstream of medicine and society and was the founder of the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center.

The practice of “mindfulness” is a more than 2000-year-old Buddhist method of living fully in the present, observing ourselves, our feeling, others and our surroundings without judging them.

I read his book Wherever You Go There You Are when it wa first published during a time when I was more into formal study of Zen and meditation.

I liked that it treated meditation as a natural activity that can be practiced anytime and anywhere. No joining a group, no props or special cushions.

Mindfulness and living in the moment can be improved with techniques such as “non-doing” and concentration.

Like defining Buddhism, these terms are simple but complex. Non-doing is very different from doing nothing. We live very much in a “doer” culture, and in such a place non-doing is a big change. Sitting down to meditate, even for a short time, is a time for non-doing, but it means you will be “working” at consciousness and intention. Anyone who has ever tried to “empty their mind” knows how very difficult that can be.

There are several chapters in the book on parenting as a form of meditation – and children as “live-in Zen masters.”

I think Kabat-Zinn would agree with Wright on how Buddhist meditation can counteract the biological pull we have toward dissatisfaction:

What I can say about meditation is that it attacks the levers that natural selection kind of uses to control us, at a very fundamental level. … By our nature we just seek good feelings and avoid bad feelings, that’s just our nature. Buddhism diagnosed this as kind of a problem and remarkably came up with a technique that allows you to actually disempower those levers, to no longer respond to the fundamental incentive structure of trying to avoid painful feelings and try to always seek the thing that promises to be gratifying. That’s an amazing thing — that it can work.


More

Listen to the interview with Wright on npr.org

Read “What Meditation Can Do for Us, and What It Can’t” by Adam Gopnik – The New Yorker

At one time, when we were people more connected to the natural world, many people felt particularly connected to certain animals. Nowadays, most of us spend a good portion of our days inside homes, building and cars and disconnected from the natural world and from the animals that live there.

You may feel a special connection to your pets, but that is not what “spirit animals” were all about at one time. Shamans and others in all cultures have found an importance of spirit animals. Sometimes these animals were seen as guides, or, as totems.

They are animal that are part of our souls or that can lead us to further spiritual growth.

I was told that wolves are probably one of the most misunderstood of all wild animals. Many believe and perceive them as cold-blooded killers, but they are described by scientists as friendly, intelligent and with many positive social traits, such as being gregarious. Wolves mate for life. Males are good fathers and quite playful.

I learned about them from a group of Native Americans many years ago. In a ceremony and series of weekend activities, participants attempted to find their spirit animal(s).  For me, that turned out to be the wolf and the rabbit. I had already felt a connection to rabbits, so that made sense. Though I had not felt any connection to wolves, they seemed like a pretty cool animal to have as a spirit guide. Of course, as I was told, those two together are predator and prey and that meant some conflict in myself.

All earth’s creatures from mammal to insect can be spirit animals. Some participants in that weekend were not thrilled to have a mouse or a bat be their spirit guide. One woman was very excited to have a dragonfly as her spirit guide. A buffalo seems like a manly totem animal, but one guy who got the butterfly was not thrilled.

The best way to find a spirit guide is to go outside and encounter your spirit animal, but that is not an experience that is available to most of us. You may feel some connection to a panda or penguin, but I suspect the chances of you meeting one outside of a zoo are pretty slim.

As some websites will tell you, perhaps as a city dweller, a rat or cockroach might be your guide. Neither sounds like a good animal guide, but consider the rat’s tenacity and cleverness. Consider how the cockroach is able to survive under almost any conditions and has adapted to living with people very well – even if people haven’t adapted as well.

Technically, finding your animal totem is not the same as recognizing a spirit guide. The totem animal is much more intuitive and personal. I was told the rabbit was my totem and the wolf was my guide.

Some suggestions for revealing these animals (besides a  spirit walk or journey into nature) involve using dreams and meditation.

It is 2017 and we are not only disconnected from nature, we are connected to technology. The two worlds seem at odds. But I will say that there are websites that claim to be able to help you find your spirit animals. (see below)  That is not the true path, but if it leads you to a better path or aids you in exploring your inner self, all the better.

As with the tarot, runes and other systems, I view all these as ways to examine yourself from another perspective. Nothing magical here. Closer to therapy than new age mysticism.

Some sites to explore:
https://www.trustedtarot.com/spirit-guides/spirit-animals/
http://www.spiritanimal.info
https://whatismyspiritanimal.com – explains my rabbit spirit in this way, and my totem wolf
A shamanistic view of the wolf appears at http://www.shamanicjourney.com/

Back in the 1930s, Carl  Jung went on at length about his views on the Tarot, noting the late Medieval cards are “really the origin of our pack of cards, in which the red and the black symbolize the opposites, and the division of the four—clubs, spades, diamonds, and hearts—also belongs to the individual symbolism.

It is said that Swiss psychologist Carl Jung discovered “the internal Tarot” of the human mind with his notion of archetypes. And it could be also argued that Tarot was already an underlying layer of the collective mind, which is where archetypes are printed —those fundamental images that constitute the psychic constellation of the human being.

The meaning of the tarot cards (like he meaning of rune stones) changes depending on whether the card is seen normally or reversed. There is a lot about opposites in tarot, runes and the I Ching.

There are 78 Tarot cards which are like the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching. There are many possibilities in those relationships. This post is not meant to teach the intricacies of using the tarot cards, but you will find that there are many ways they are used. There are many “spreads” of the cards – dream spread, mandala spread, 10 cards, 3 cards.

I was never sure that Jung thought you could use the cards to predict the future. In fact, he said “We can predict the future when we know how the present moment evolved from the past.”  He viewed it, as I view it, as a way to examine your past and present in order to consider (rather than predict) the future.

A Tarot card or a hexagram plays into Jung’s “synchronicity” theories. Mary K. Greer’s tarot blog came up near the top of my tarot search results and she also has discussed Jung and how as psychological images these tarot symbols combine in certain ways, and the different combinations correspond to interpretations that Jung even called “playful.” The Fool, The Tower, The Lovers and the Hanged Man and the others are archetypal ideas.

Before we get too deep into that territory, let me say that we can use this divination as part of what Jung would call “individuation.”

Individuation is the psychic process by which one becomes himself, indivisibly, uniquely, a monad, as an expression of uniqueness and self-sufficiency at microcosmic level. It is, in Jung’s terms, the realization of the Self.

For my previous post, I used the I Ching to answer my question about whether I should continue teaching this year. The hexagram  “answer” was not clear to me. I thought it only fair to ask the tarot cards the same question.

I did a one card pull and got The Fool card.

The Fool is a very powerful card in the Tarot deck, usually representing a new beginning. And a new beginning means an end.

I didn’t do a full spread where the card’s position would tell me what aspect of my life would be subject to change. The Fool portends important decisions ahead. Not always easy ones. Maybe an element of risk. for you. Approach the changes with optimism and care to gain the most positive outcome.

I read the card as telling me that I am entering a new phase of life. Is it good or bad? Not clear. I would need to do a spread with a future position.

 

The Fool can indicate foolishness, but it seems to be more optimistic and is usually interpreted as a “Yes” answer to your question.

Maybe the tarot answer is the answer I wanted. Maybe I willed it to be the card. Maybe it is a coincidence.

Maybe if I did the I Ching again, I would get a better result.

So I did the I Ching again. This time I got TUI. This is known as “joy”. It has the elements of Lake over Lake. It is a good hexagram to get as Tui indicates a period of success and prosperity is entering your life.

Isn’t that the answer I wanted?

I think I will let the summer end and when autumn arrives I will look to the runes and spirit animals and other divinations. I predict that there will be more changes and predictions in my future.

I went to a workshop recently on using the I ChingThe I Ching is also known as Classic of Changes or Book of Changes. It is an ancient Chinese divination text and the oldest of the Chinese classics. There are more than two and a half millennia of commentary and interpretations. It is an influential text and it is read throughout the world. Besides its use for divining the future, it has provided inspiration to the worlds of religion, psychoanalysis, business, literature, and art.

It is a complicated book to study. I had a copy from my college days that I had annotated with tips on how to the read the toss of coins and the resulting hexagrams. But that copy was loaned to a girlfriend many years ago and never returned. I bought a used copy from Amazon a few weeks before the workshop and tried to relearn what I had once known about using it.

I was intrigued by a series of Post-It notes that the previous owner had left inside the book. Reading those notes took me back to my earlier uses of the text.

The previous owner had written her questions on pages with the hexagrams she received.

“Hexagram 31  What is my true calling?
Hexagram 49  How can I regain my sparkle and preserve?
How can I go about enforcing myself to go in the right direction regarding work and happiness together?
Hexagram 47 In what ways can I go about healing myself that I have not yet covered. What is my missing link and how can I find it?
How can I ensure that I will make the right decisions to go down the right path?”

Those are big questions.

Working with this 5,000-year-old Chinese book of wisdom, some people turn to workbooks that are designed to help novice truth-seekers find meaning.

But this is 2017 and so there is no need to have the Book-of-Changes and Chinese coins. You can ask your question online, click six virtual coins and get your hexagram. I just did that.

I asked about whether I should continue teaching this year, as opposed to fully retiring. My answer was Hexagram 27. Here is the virtual version of the answer or guidance. It is simplified but not simple.

Hexagram 27
Beneath the immobile Mountain the arousing Thunder stirs.
The Superior Person preserves his freedom under oppressive conditions by watching what comes out of his mouth, as well as what goes in.

Endure and good fortune will come.
Nurture others in need, as if you were feeding yourself.
Take care not to provide sustenance for those who feed off others.
Stay as high as possible on the food chain.

You are a conduit in this instance, able to provide the sustenance needed by others. Position yourself to nourish the truly needy and worthy. Avoid situations where you might be coerced into supporting the parasites and vermin who deprive your true charges.
Your own nourishment is an issue here, too.

Remember Lao Tzu’s three Great Treasures: Only the person possessed of Compassion, Modesty and Frugality can remain fit enough to stay free of desperation and keep control of the situation

That is very open to interpretation – as with a horoscope, runes or tarot cards. What is my answer? Not clear.

The I Ching was originally used for divination. But it is not simple prognostication. Any serious user will tell you that that you, as the diviner, cultivate an understanding of the world and the self. Without this understanding, the text is useless. That is why most version have the commentaries.

Tomorrow, the tarot cards…

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Hands off Hello Not all labyrinths are traps Happy to be inside but already missing summer outdoors.  The plant feels the same way. There’s something in the first cold nights when autumn teases winter that seem to require a fire. Still drinking morning tea in the afternoon.  #teaetiquette

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