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I watch this film at least once a year. I’m sure there are people who think of this film – seen or unseen – as “just another Bill Murray/Harold Ramis comedy.” I really believe it is far more profound than you would think at a glance. I don’t know that the filmmakers’ intended all of that, but it’s there.
I am not crazy in my belief that’s there’s more here than meets the viewing eye. Do a search on “Groundhog Day” and add something like philosophy, Buddhism, Zen, etc. and you’ll get plenty of hits of others who feel the same way.
Harold Ramis (director and co-writer) has said that he gets mail from Jesuit priests, rabbis and Buddhists, and they all find meaning in the film , and use it in sermons, talks and classes. In Buddhism classes, it is often used to illustrate the cycle of continual rebirth.
If you haven’t seen the film, here’s some background: Bill Murray plays a self-centered, cranky TV meteorologist named Phil who gets sent to Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania to cover the annual Groundhog Day festivities. He is joined by his producer Rita (Andie MacDowell), and a cameraman Larry (Chris Elliott). He does a going-through-the-motions report. When they try to drive back to Pittsburgh, they are stopped by a blizzard (which he had predicted would miss the area) that shuts down the highways and they are forced to stay in town an extra day.
Phil wakes up at 6 AM and discovers that it is February 2 all over again. The day runs the same as it did before, but no one else seems to be aware of the time loop. And it happens again the next time he wakes up – and the next time and so on (38 times by my count).
He realizes that he can use this to his advantage and begins to learn more about the townsfolk. He ‘s hardly noble. He seduces women, steals money, drives drunk and tries to put the moves on Rita (that last one fails).
But this power he has eventually bores and depresses him. He tries to break the cycle and files mean TV reports, abuses residents, kidnaps Punxsutawney Phil the groundhog. Finally, he attempts suicide, but still ends up waking up to the clock radio playing Sonny & Cher’s “I Got You Babe.” (Give a listen.)
Each time I re-watch the film, I think about another aspect of it. I keep thinking that some day I am going to teach this film in a course.
One scene has Phil dead in the morgue. Rita and Larry are there to identify his body. Is any of these retakes on the day affecting the others? They don’t seem to remember the alternates takes, but…
A few years ago, I watched it and it led me to explore other movies and writings that play with time loops. There are a lot of them.
One day Phil is in the bowling alley. He asks two guys drinking with him, “What would you do if you were stuck in one place, and every day was exactly the same and nothing that you did mattered?” One guy replies, “That about sums it up for me.”
Are some of us leading a kind of Groundhog Day existence for real?
Other writers online have gotten far more serious in their explorations of the film than me.
This is from thesacredpage.com
Once Phil realizes that in his Nietzschean quagmire there are no consequences to his actions, he also experiences modern philosophy’s liberation from any sense of eternal justice. “I am not going to play by their rules any longer,” he gleefully announces. His reaction epitomizes Glaucon’s argument in Plato’s Republic. Remove the fear of punishment, Glaucon argued, and the righteous will behave no differently than the wicked
and from groundhogdaythemovie.com comes some discussions about the film like this:
I asked what the Reb thought was the turning point in the film. After watching it for the ninth or tenth time specifically to find where the third act begins, I concluded that it begins 4/5 of the way into the 103 minute film, at about the 80 minute mark. Phil is throwing cards into the hat, and Rita points out that the eternally repeating day doesn’t have to be a curse.
Reb Anderson disagreed. He thought the turning point came later, when Phil found he was unable to save the old man’s life. Only here, he said, did Phil realize “It’s not me, it is the universe, I am just the vessel.”
Why did the writers use February 2, Groundhog Day, as the setting? I think because it’s such a nothing “holiday.” It has no religious connections, no cards, no gifts and very little tradition. And yet, it’s not just an ordinary day. The first time I saw the film (wow, almost 17 years ago), I thought that he would relive the day for 6 more weeks of winter. Later, I thought about the day and decided there was something about the end of winter, spring and rebirth going on in the story.
In this piece from 2003, the author suggests that we consider the film as a tale of self-improvement which:
“…emphasizes the need to look inside oneself and realize that the only satisfaction in life comes from turning outward and concerning oneself with others rather than concentrating solely on one’s own wants and desires. The phrase also has become a shorthand illustration for the concept of spiritual transcendence. As such, the film has become a favorite of Buddhists because they see its themes of selflessness and rebirth as a reflection of their own spiritual messages. It has also, in the Catholic tradition, been seen as a representation of Purgatory. It has even been dubbed by some religious leaders as the “most spiritual film of our time.”
Want to have a viewing group (which I would prefer to a reading group these days) and show the film? Check out the discussion questions on this philosophy site. http://www.philfilms.utm.edu/1/groundhog.htm
The original idea for the story was supposed to have come from the book The Gay Science (The Joyful Wisdom) by Friedrich Nietzsche. In that book, Nietzsche gives a description of a man who is living the same day over and over again.
The writer of the original script, Danny Rubin, said that one of the inspirational moments in the creation of the story came after reading Interview With the Vampire which got him thinking about what it would be like to live forever. Rubin and Ramis have both said that they avoided exploring the really dark side of Phil’s time looping in which he could done some horrible things without consequence, like murder.
And, as a capper to this love letter to the film, I have to add that the film is also funny and sweet. Funny is no surprise. Murray and Ramis teamed up for the film Stripes which is a great, silly comedy that I also love, and that has no philosophy or religious themes at all.
The sweetness is all Hollywood. Phil does learn lessons. He befriends many of the townsfolk that he had mocked. He uses his knowledge to try to save lives and help people. And he finally knows how to treat Rita. His final TV report is a beauty that puts everyone in tears. The next morning he wakes and finds the circle broken.
When the clock clicks over to 6 AM for you in the morning, what kind of day are you planning to make it?
This documentary combines photographs from private collections and restored footage from such films as Thomas A. Edison’s “Rescued from an Eagle’s Nest” and D.W. Griffith’s “The New York Hat,” featuring Mary Pickford and Lionel Barrymore and filmed at the studios in Fort Lee.
D. W. Griffith made many one-reel Biograph dramas there (Mack Sennett appeared in his first film). Pearl White endured the “Perils of Pauline,” and Mary Pickford and Theda Bara starred in early features.
The American film industry got its start with the construction of Thomas Edison’s “Black Maria”, the first motion picture studio, in West Orange, New Jersey. New Jersey offered land for studios for much less than nearby New York City. By about 1916, a dozen major movie studios were operating across the Hudson River from Manhattan.
The movies came to Fort Lee when pioneer companies started to look for new filming locations. In 1907, it was found that the Palisades near Fort Lee and Coytesville could be used for “Wild West” scenes and other outdoor scenes. Rambo’s Hotel on First Street was used as a place to dress as well as for the exterior of a Western saloon.
In 1907, Thomas Alva Edison used the cliffs of the Palisades for the exterior of “Rescued from an Eagle’s Nest.” It was in this picture that D.W. Griffith, later to become more famous as a director, first appeared in a starring role as an actor.
In 1914, with the expansion of the giant French film companies into the United States market, Maurice Tourneur moved to the United States to direct silent films for Éclair’s American branch studio in Fort Lee.
His once-lost 1917 feature, A Girl’s Folly, is included on the DVD of Before Hollywood, There Was Fort Lee, N.J in a half-hour abridgement with views of the glass stages, rotating sets, tank for water effects, projection room, and crews at work, along with his hour-long 1914 feature, The Wishing Ring.
Watching these early films, you can see the development of film language with the early use of editing, intercutting and the variety of shots (fewer long shots and more close medium shots) which was rare in early films.
Fort Lee also prospered with the businesses that came to the city to service the film studios. Fort Lee’s reign as the film capital lasted about 20 years. Nestor Studios of Bayonne, New Jersey built the first studio in Hollywood in 1911. Later, Nestor merged with Universal Studios and co-owner William Horsley’s other company, Hollywood Film Laboratory, is now the oldest existing company in Hollywood (now known as Hollywood Digital Laboratory).
California’s climate was more cost-effective and by the 1930s pretty much all filmmaking had moved to the West Coast.
Another motivation to be on the opposite coast was because at the time Thomas Edison owned almost all the patents relevant to motion picture production. Movie producers on the East Coast who violated Edison’s Motion Picture Patents Company were often sued. Movie makers on the West Coast were able to work independently of Edison’s control.
I thought of Alfred Hitchcock’s film, Vertigo, three times in the past week. The first time was when I took a hot air balloon ride over Napa Valley in California. Next was while climbing the stairs of a tower in San Francisco, the city that is the setting of the film. Finally, last Tuesday, I noticed that it was Hitchcock’s birthday.
Vertigo is a 1958 psychological thriller that Hitchcock based on the 1954 novel D’entre les morts by Boileau-Narcejac. The film stars James Stewart as former police detective John “Scottie” Ferguson, who has been forced into early retirement due to his vertigo and clinical depression. He works as a private investigator and is hired to follow Madeleine Elster (Kim Novak) who is behaving peculiarly.
The film received mixed reviews upon initial release, but has garnered acclaim since and is now often cited as a classic Hitchcock film and one of the defining works of his career. it replaced Citizen Kane as the best film of all time in the 2012 Sight & Sound critics’ poll and has appeared repeatedly in best film polls by the American Film Institute.
Acrophobia (from the Greek ákron , meaning “peak, summit, edge” and phóbos, “fear”) is an extreme or irrational fear of heights. Of course, most people have some degree of natural fear when exposed to heights. It may not show itself when in an airplane at thousands of feet, but be terrifying at a hundred feet on a ledge with no railing.
Acrophobia sufferers can experience a panic attack in a high place and become too agitated to get themselves down safely. Between 2 and 5 percent of the general population suffer from acrophobia, with twice as many women affected as men.
The term “vertigo” is often used incorrectly to describe a fear of heights. It is more accurately a spinning sensation that occurs when one is not actually spinning. It can be triggered by looking down from a high place, but also by looking straight up at a high place. True vertigo can be triggered by almost any type of movement including standing up, sitting down, walking or changes in visual perspective (e.g. squatting down, walking up or down stairs, looking out of the window of a moving car or train). So, with vertigo dizziness triggered by heights is just part of the problem.
In Hitchcock’s film, he popularized the dolly zoom. It is an in-camera special effect that distorts perspective to create disorientation, The effect is achieved by dollying (on wheels) the camera away from a subject while the lens zooms in, or vice-versa. The effect is that the background appears to change size relative to the subject. It was Hitchcock’s method of showing Scottie’s condition. As a result of its use in this film, the effect is often called “the Vertigo effect”.
Acrophobia is the extreme, but obviously cautiousness around heights is helpful for survival. Like other phobia, this extreme fear can interfere with the activities of everyday life, such as climbing up a flight of stairs or a ladder or even standing on a chair.
I don’t have vertigo, but I do have acrophobia. It hits me when I climb on a low roof to clean out rain gutters. It stops me from going on many amusement park rides which rely on that natural fear for their thrills.
At one time, sufferers were encouraged to expose themselves to height to overcome the fear. I took rock climbing classes and force myself into situations sometimes. In researching this article, I found that this treatment is now considered questionable.
I actually enjoy flying on airplanes and love looking out the window. I wondered about taking the balloon ride last week because of the open basket. Although we rose to about 2500 feet, I felt no fear at all about the height and it was smoother than the plane ride to and from the west coast.
Since my wife and I try for a weekly movie date, I like the idea. I especially love it when you see a movie that gets you talking about it on the way out of the theater. That’s why having another couple along is a good idea. Since we don’t always double date, I’m glad we have Kristen Meinzer (producer on The Takeaway) and Rafer Guzman (legitimate movie critic for Newsday) to take along.
I like their opinions. I like when they disagree. I like that their taste in movies is different. I especially like that they never really focus on a film but get off into a genre or related films.
Here are some descriptions of recent episodes:
Rafer confesses to being a magic nerd, Kristen talks about girl-on-girl action, Rafer admits to liking big beds, and Kristen uses some barnyard language. It’s all in honor of “The Call,” “The Incredible Burt Wonderstone,” “Ginger and Rosa,” and “Spring Breakers.”
Rafer and Kristen review “Dead Man Down,” “Emperor,” and “Oz: The Great and Powerful.” Along the way, they contemplate the power of Tyler Perry, the scariness of The Incredible Hulk, and the style choices of Joan Crawford. A warning: this week’s trivia question refers to a certain college past time involving marijuana, “The Wizard of Oz,” and Pink Floyd.
So, yes, this is not Cahiers du Cinema . Then again, Cahiers du Cinema isn’t Cahiers du Cinema any more. This is not so much film reviews as it is movie reviews. And I mean that is a good way. When they reviewed a pretty dreadful MARMADUKE, they go back to BABE and OLD YELLER.
They also do a trivia question and I have lucked into getting my voice on the air twice for having the wright answer. Thirteen more times and I will have my 15 minutes of fame.
I wonder if Kristen and Rafer ever do a double date?
Spanish filmmaker Cristóbal Vila made “Nature by Numbers”, a short film about mathematical concepts found in nature (Fibonacci Sequence, Golden Number, etc.) a few years ago and his newer film (below) is the short “Inspirations.” His inspiration is M.C. Escher who also explored mathematical ideas with his art.
INSPIRATIONS from Cristóbal Vila on Vimeo.
Originally posted on mookology.:
The Silver Linings Playbook – Novel by Matthew Quick
Matthew Quick’s debut novel, The Silver Linings Playbook, is genuine, fantastic, and one of my favorite books I’ve read this year. The story is about the mentally at-risk Pat Peoples and his return home to live with his parents after losing his home, his wife, and his life as he knew it. This was one of those books I just couldn’t put down and recommended to (literally) everyone. In my experience, I find it hard to find a light hearted story about a depressing topic that is as true to life as can be while still entertaining the reader. The Silver Linings Playbook did this, which is why I enjoyed it so much.
Most people would not see any connection between the newly released film Hope Springs with Meryl Streep and Tommy Lee Jones, and a film from earlier this year called Jeff, Who Lives at Home. I saw the former in the theater last week and watched the latter on DVD a few days ago. Very different films. I liked both of them a lot.
Hope Springs is about a couple that after 31 years together go to Great Hope Springs, Maine to work with a famous therapist to try to rediscover the reasons why they married so long ago.
In the other film, Jason Segel plays Jeff who is simply looking for meaning in his life. He is a stoner slacker who has been pretty much written off by his brother and mother, but he knows that signs are leading him towards meaning.
The connections are signs.
Jeff was powerfully influenced by the film Signs. That’s a film that focuses,in B-movie thriller style, on an alien-invasion and was directed by M. Night Shyamalan (The Sixth Sense and Unbreakable).
The film tracks a series of signs and portents that come to a family in Pennsylvania who wake up one morning to find a 500-foot crop circle in their backyard. The news tells them that crop circles are being found all over the world.
Jeff, Who Lives at Home was directed by the Duplass brothers, Jay and Mark, who have directed some rather eccentric and funny films like The Puffy Chair, Baghead and Cyrus. Jeff, Who Lives at Home is more of a major studio, major names film, but it is still an odd one in all the best ways.
Kay and Arnold have been married for 31 years. Jeff has been on the planet for 30 years.They are both searching for answers because they can see the signs.
The couple has a therapist as a guide. Jeff has only himself to interpret the signs. He reminds me of the father in the TV show Touch that I wrote about earlier who is trying to find the red thread that his son sees.
Everything is connected. Everything has a purpose.
Jeff is living in his mom’s Baton Rouge basement. He watches TV, smokes pot, eats junk food and does not go out into the world. One critic said that Jeff, in his soul, is a “character out of Dostoevsky – a holy fool.”
Random events ( a television infomercial, a wrong number, a stranger on a bus) are not random. There are no accidents in the universe.
More than ten years ago, I read the book There Are No Accidents: Synchronicity and the Stories of Our Lives by Robert H. Hopcke. Hopcke is a Jungian marriage and family psychotherapist. (A therapist, like in Hope Springs – coincidence? Of course not.)
The book explores the nature and role of synchronicity. It was Carl Jung who coined the term “synchronicity” to describe those odd “coincidences” and events that seem to tell us something, teach us and sometimes turn our lives around. They make life a grand, mysterious story.
But how do you identify these coincidences as signs and uncover their significance so that they turn our lives towards greater meaning.
Some of the stories in the book – a woman is set up on a blind date with the same man twice, years apart, on two different coasts; a singer’s career changes direction when she walks into the wrong audition; a man gives his wife an unexpected gift, after she repeatedly dreams about that very same item – will trigger memories of your own synchronicities.
“It’s a poor sort of memory that only works backwards. The rule is, jam to-morrow and jam yesterday–but never jam to-day.’
‘It MUST come sometimes to “jam to-day,”‘ Alice objected.
‘No, it can’t,’ said the Queen. ‘It’s jam every OTHER day: to-day isn’t any OTHER day, you know.’
‘I don’t understand you,’ said Alice. ‘It’s dreadfully confusing!’
‘That’s the effect of living backwards,’ the Queen said kindly: ‘it always makes one a little giddy at first–’
‘Living backwards!’ Alice repeated in great astonishment. ‘I never heard of such a thing!’
‘–but there’s one great advantage in it, that one’s memory works both ways.’
‘I’m sure MINE only works one way,’ Alice remarked. ‘I can’t remember things before they happen.’
‘It’s a poor sort of memory that only works backwards,’ the Queen remarked.
There are two time-traveling projects on my fall calendar. Earlier, I wrote a post about the television program Fringe which will have its final season starting in September. Another story due in September on the big screen is Looper and both deal with time travel.
Looper is a science fiction film directed by Rian Johnson with a time travel plot that stars Joseph Gordon-Levitt Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Bruce Willis, and Emily Blunt. Gordon-Levitt and Johnson previously teamed up on an interesting 2006 “neo-film noir film called Brick.
Besides being about the technology for the time-travel machine itself, it’s also about corporate abuse of time travel and seems to have a film noir feel to the story too.
Set in the future, Joseph Simmons (Gordon-Levitt) works as a “looper”who kills and disposes of people who are sent back in time by their employers (known as “Gat Men”) for that purpose. One day the target who arrives he recognizes as the 55 year-old version (played by Willis) of himself. He hesitates and his older self escapes. Now both versions of Joe are being pursued.
After three days of what is becoming a new trend in Hollywood advertising – trailers for a trailer – Apple.com unveiled the first official teaser for time travel movie “Looper.” The action flick stars Joseph Gordon-Levitt and is directed and written by Rian Johnson, who introduced the film in three vignettes that counted down to Thursday’s preview release.
The film does some time-jumping, plays with paradoxes and is more of a thriller sci-fi. That’s why some have compared it with Willis’ 1995 time travel movie 12 Monkeys. Gordon-Levitt said the new film is “sort of a down-to-earth Blade Runner… it feels real. It’s that style of sci-fi that could actually exist in 30 years.” If the new film gets close to being like both of those films, it should be a great ride.
I love the Back to the Future trilogy of films. I love the time travel, of course, but I also just love the stories. But they can be a bit confusing when it comes to the dates since characters bounce back and forth in time.
Futurepedia is the “Back to the Future Wiki” and they do a pretty good job of giving information on the trilogy and the animated series, and keeping track of the continuity in the stories. As careful as I have been in researching all this, I probably screwed up at some point, so fans can correct me in the comments section. This is the kind of research I enjoy.
It all starts when Doc Brown reveals to his friend Marty McFly what he has invented. They are at Twin Pines Mall, and it is the early morning of October 26, 1985.
Doc’s first test of the DeLorean time machine is when he sends his dog, Einstein, one minute into the future. Using a remote controller, he revved up the engine to 65 mph while braked, released the brake and sent the car moving towards the two of them. The DeLorean glowed, and as it hit 88 mph as flames seemed to engulf the vehicle. As the flux capacitor fired, the car seemed to explode just before it hit Doc and Marty leaving only fire trails on the pavement.
Marty: “You disintegrated Einstein!”
Doc: “Calm down, Marty, I didn’t disintegrate anything. The molecular structure of both Einstein and the car are completely intact!”
Marty: “Then where the hell are they?”
Doc: “The appropriate question is ‘When the hell are they’? You see, Einstein has just become the world’s first time traveler. I sent him into the future!… one minute into the future to be precise. And at exactly 1:21 A.M. and zero seconds we will catch up to him and the time machine.”
For Einstein, the trip was instantaneous, but to Marty and Doc they had to wait exactly one minute to catch up to Einstein in the timeline. The car suddenly appeared where Doc and Marty were standing and screeched to a halt. It was frozen -supercooled from traveling through time.
Einstein was unharmed, and Doc then showed Marty the interior and its controls.
Doc says, “First, you turn the time circuits on. This read-out tells you where you’re going. This one tells you where you are. This one tells you where you were.”
While inputting dates on the keypad, Doc used July 4, 1776 (the date the American declaration of Independence was signed) and December 25, 0000 (the date of the birth of Christ) as examples, before inputting “a red-letter date in the history of science, November 5, 1955″.
It is Oct. 26, 1985 at 1:22 AM when Einstein returns. Doc Brown intended to travel to Oct. 26, 2010, but he is gunned down by terrorists in the mall parking lot before he gets the chance. To escape, Marty jumps in the DeLorean and travels back to November 5, 1955 . This is the day Doc first envisioned the flux capacitor used to time travel. He had set it to this date when he was demonstrating how the time machine worked.
Marty spends one week in 1955. On November 12, 1955 at 10:04 PM, Marty zaps back to the “future” (which is his and our movie “present” – geez, this is confusing).
But, as we watch the three films, we realize that there were four instances of the DeLorean in Hill Valley on that day, three of which existed at the same time! One was the car hidden at Doc’s mansion with the 1955 Doc. One version of the car was hidden somewhere else by the 2015 Biff, because November 12, 1955 is also when Biff Tannen, enemy to all McFlys, steals the DeLorean to take the 1950-2000 Sports Almanac that Marty bought. One DeLorean was with the 1985 Doc was hidden behind the Lyon estates billboard.
Most of the 1955 events in the Part II film are Marty and Doc in “Timeline 6“, as it is known to aficionados, where Doc had not been in 1885. Yes, there are a bunch of timelines to explain all this.
Marty, with the help of young Doc and a lightning strike, returns to the date he left, Oct. 26, 1985 at 1:24 AM. Unfortunately, because of Biff’s new wealth due to his ability to “predict” the outcomes of sporting events, it’s a completely different 1985 than the one he left at start of the film.
In the second film, Marty is warned by Doc that there are a few problems with his kids, so they must go to the future to correct a situation. They travel to October 21, 2015. Biff delivers the sports almanac to his younger 1955 self and then he returns the DeLorean to the date he found it.
In the third film, the DeLorean, with only Doc in it, is struck by lightning and he is sent back to 1885. In this film, Marty uses the DeLorean that’s been in hidden for the last 70 years to travel back to September 2, 1885 to rescue Doc.
In order to get the DeLorean up to the magical 88 mph that allows the time jump in 1885 without a fuel supply, he decides to use a souped-up locomotive. Doc and Marty “borrow” the locomotive and take it to an unused spur that ran to Shonash Ravine and hope they can get it up to speed before hitting the ravine.
On September 6, Doc placed the car onto the track and the were successful in making the leap on the 7th. Marty was sent back to 1985, but Doc and his new love, Clara, remained in 1885.
Marty returns to October 27 1985, so only two days after the original film started. (Is it a paradox that Michael J. Fox seems to have aged five years?).
When Marty arrived in 1985, the DeLorean was on the railroad tracks until it sopped on the track outside Hilldale. Marty is shocked to see a 1985 locomotive barreling towards him. He jumps out of the DeLorean just before it is pulverized.
Marty and Jennifer look at the wreckage and destroyed flux capacitor. Oddly, the railroad crossing’s bells sound and the crossing gates come down although there are trains were to be seen. Then, the “Jules Verne Train” appeared. This train is Doc’s way to return without the DeLorean.
Mr. and Mrs. Brown introduce Marty and Jennifer to the two new members of their family, Jules and Verne. He gives Marty a photograph of them standing in front of the clock as a souvenir.
At the end of the third Back To The Future movie, Marty asks Doc Brown, “Hey, Doc…where ya going now? Back to the future?” to which Doc Brown responds, “Nope. Already been there!”
I don’t have all the answers. Where does he take his family? 1885?
You haven’t seen the Back to the Future trilogy? That’s a real gap in your cultural knowledge!
You say the films are not “serious enough” for you? Try The Worlds of Back to the Future: Critical Essays on the Films and then you can chat up the cultural, cinematic, and historical contexts of the films. It has philosophy, literature, music, pop culture, and media and gender studies. Imagine your introducing at the next cocktail party your theories on the sexual symbolism in the trilogy or the oedipal plotting of the first film. Tell friends about the Lacanian philosophical constructs in the characterizations of Doc Brown and George and Marty McFly. Oh, it’s all there. You can feel intellectually secure spending a weekend absorbed in the trilogy. If you want to place it in the historical context of Reaganite America, you can find folks who have written about that too.
By the way, I am posting this on 7/7 at 7:07 am. Oh yeah, numbers matter.